Construction Resources

Hartman, E.; Kim, K.; Santiago, R.; Joyner, R.; Grahm, M.. (2014). “The use of a thin-layer cap to manage Hg and PCB Contaminated Sediments in Peninsula Harbor, Ontario, Canada..” Presentation

Keywords:Mercury, PCBs, Pulp Mill, Chlor-Alkali Plant, Capping

Summary:The slide show describes thin-layer capping for in-situ remediation of mercury and PCB contaminated sediments in Peninsula Harbor, Ontario. Engineering design, contracting, environmental mitigation measures, implementation and monitoring are covered. Descriptive photographs are included.

What You Will Find Here:Slides

Wilson, David; Rudolfo, Nicholas’ Noble, Bruce; Lally, John; Hewitt, Ronald; Kim, Kay; Grover, Barry.. (2014). “Implementation of a Thin Layer Cap on Lake Superior in Marathon, Ontario” Presenation RPIC-FCS Workshop April 14-16, 2014 Ottawa

Keywords:Construction, Monitoring

Summary:Principal discharges resulted from untreated pulp mill effluent and treated effluent from a chlor-alkali plant which operated from 1977 to 1984. Marathon Pulp and Paper filed for bankruptcy in 2009 and ceased operation. Investigations dating back to 1980 have measured elevated mercury and PCBs in Cove sediments. Sediments not toxic to benthic organisms, but affect upper trophic community including reproductive success of bottom feeding fish. Options considered included dredging and capping alternatives. Presence of higher levels of contamination at depth and risk of resuspension were concerns with dredge options. Thin layer sand cap provided ability to achieve adequate risk reduction and to provide enhanced natural recovery of the site. Prescribed remedy is placement of 15 – 20 cm layer of clean sand over defined contaminated “hot spots”.

What You Will Find Here:Construction p. 13; Monitoring p. 20

Palermo, M.R.; Maynard, S.; Miller, J.; Reible, D.D.. (2012). “Guidance for In Situ Subaqueous Capping of Contaminated Sediments.” USEPA.

Keywords:Capping, Contaminated Sediments

Summary:This webpage provides guidance on: direct mechanical placement, surface discharge of material, spreading by barge movement, piping with baffle plate or sand box, submerged diffusers, spreader barges, tremies and hopper dredges. Armoring layers, geomembranes and fabrics are also discussed.

What You Will Find Here:Webpage

Kay Kim, Sue-Jin An, Roger Santiago, Victoria Renner, Rupert Joyner, Anne Borgmann, Matthew Graham, and Erin Hartman. (2012). “The Use of Thin-Layer Cap to Manage Hg and PCB Contaminated Sediments in Jellicoe Cove, Peninsula Harbour, Ontario, Canada.” Environment Canada Sediment Remediation Unit Presentation

Summary:Case study of Thin-Layer Cap in Jellicoe Cove, Peninsula Harbour, Ontario, Canada. Planning, design, construction, and monitoring is discussed.

What You Will Find Here:Remediation (Hg & PCB) p. 6, Planning p. 7, Monitoring p. 13, 56, Construction p. 30,

ECC and HDR. (2011). “Design Document Report, RECOVERY Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel, Multiple Site Repairs – Phase II.” Prepared for USACE Galveston District. HSC 401-528. September 9th 2011

Keywords:Houson-Galveston Navigation Channel, HGNC, placement, beneficial use, Bolivar Marsh, Evia Island, marsh construction, beach restoration, Hurricane Ike

Summary:This is a design report of a marsh and support structures.

What You Will Find Here:Settlement Estimates for 288 acre Marsh Figure 301 p. 3-3, Data Collection Instrument Locations Figure 4-1 p. 4-2, Measured Water Level at Boilvar Marsh Figure 4-2 p. 4-4, Current Speeds Figure 4-3 p. 4-5, Wind Rose Figure 5-1 p. 5-1, Wind Speeds during Hurricane IKE Figure 5-3 p. 5-3, Waterlevel excedance Figure 5-7 p. 5-6, Shipwaves p. 5-10, Breakwater transmitted wave heights at varying water levels Figure 6-11 p. 6-21, Channels and Ponds p. 7-2, Placement Areas Figure 7-4 p. 7-5, Proposed Pond and Channel Layout Figure 7-8 p. 7-7, 288 Acre Cell at Bolivar Marsh Figure 8-2 p. 8-4, Marsh Layout and Slopes Based on Construction Method p. 8-8, Marsh and borrow layout and weathering p. 8-9, Bay Circulation and Sediment Transport p. 8-12, Ebb Tidal Currents past the Marsh Figure 8-13 p. 8-15, Summary p. 10-1

Bray, R.N. (editor). (2008). “Environmental Aspects of Dredging.” Taylor & Francis Balkema. AK Leden

Keywords:dredged material, beneficial use, aquatic placement, CDFs

Summary:The chapter “Reuse, Recycle, Relocate” defines: benefical use, confined placement, convined disposal facility, and containment measures. Steps in the decision making process for dredged material are provided. Potential uses, aquative placement techniques, and CDFs are covered in detail. The chapter concludes with treatment methods for contaminated dredged material.

What You Will Find Here:Management Alternatives p. 192, Beneficial Use p. 200, Unconfined Aquatic Placement p. 215, Semiconfined Aquatic Placement p. 215, Placement in CDFs p. 228

Joseph Gailani, Douglas Clarke,Timothy Welp. (2006). “Working With Nature Beneficial Use Studies.” Presentation

Keywords:Beneficial Use Case Study, Regulatory, Planning, Cost, Monitoring, Construction

Summary:Overview presentation on beneficial use methods of placement and case study discussion.

What You Will Find Here:Beneficial Use Case Study p. 12, p. 13, p. 16, Long Distance Conveyance p. 6, Regulatory p. 8, Planning p. 9, Cost p. 10, Monitoring p. 17, Thin-Layer Placement p. 23

de Leeuw, H.A.; Smits, E.P.T.; Mathijssen, F.A.J.M.; Estourgie, A.L.Ph. . (2002). “Reclamation on Soft Subsoil by Spraying Thin Layers of Sand: The “Ijburg” Project near Amsterdam.” Terra et Aqua. 89. December 2002

Keywords:Sand Excavation, Thin-Layers, Reclaiming Soft Soils, Shear Strength, Pilot Project, Hydraulic Placement

Summary:A stable platform was created on soft subsoil using thin-layer placement of sand. This was accomplished using a custom built spray pontoon. A consolidation period of four weeks was allowed between each layer of sand (50 cm layers). Run off suspended solids were minimized to 400 mg/L using large settlement basins and high flow water pumps. The soft subsoil was a young Halocene clay layer over a Halocene peat and clay-layer (total thickness ranging from 6-12 meters). Vertical drains allowed consolidation periods to be 10 times faster. The geotechnical success of the placement project relied on accurately placing the first thin-layer of sand.

What You Will Find Here:Introduction p. 9, Main Features of the Project and its Design p. 12, Geotechnical Aspects p. 17, Sand Extraction and Overburden Removal by “Clay Relocation” Method p. 26, Spraying Sand p. 28, Reducing Dredging Delays p. 30

USACE/Interagency Coordination Team (ICT). (2002). “Laguna Madre GIWW Dredged Material Management Plan.

Keywords:Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP), Interagency Coordination Team (ICT), Corps of Engineers (USACE), Placement Areas (Pas)

Summary:Each placement area for the Laguna Madre Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is reviewed. Best management practices are used for dispersing dredged material such ase energy dissipating devices for spreading out thin layers and decreasing the chance of burying sea grasses. Dredging windows are set from November through February when seagrass is dormant and less effected by turbidity. Generally elevated turbidity due to dredging activity is limited to an area 3/4 to 1 mile from the discharge point and remains up to 3 months after disposal is complete. It has been determined that if no more than 3 inches of dredged material is placed seagrass can recover in 3-5 years. Typical issues in the placement areas involve: hauling or pumping distances being too long for ocean disposal, recuirements of protecting seagrass, or critical habitat for piping plover or black skimmer. The preservation of cabins are also common issues with dredge material placement. The use of the placement areas for dredged material was surveyed between 1949 and 1995.

What You Will Find Here:General Guidelines p. 2, Reach 1 issues with Ocean Placement p. 3, Pas 213-219 issues p. 17, PA 221 Circulation problems p. 18, Issues with Thin-Layer Placement in Reach 5 p. 19, Erosive Currents PA 233 p. 23

Turner, R.E.. (2002). “Approaches to Coastal Wetland Restoration: Northern Gulf of Mexico.” Kugler Publications.

Keywords:Dredged Material, Thin-Layer Placement

Summary:The history of thin-layer placement is covered. Thin-layer placement thicknesses for revegetation are discussed. A case of a failed thin-layer placement on very soft sediments is disscussed. The ability to convert shallow open water to vegetated marsh is possible. Important planning considerations are listed. Cost comparisons relating high-pressure spray placement to bucket dredging are provided. Monitoring of thin-layer placement may involve different attributes of plant health and several different soil/sediment parameters.

What You Will Find Here:Dredged Material Wetlands p. 77, Thin-Layer Placement p. 115

Anchor Environmental, Inc.. (1999). “Kings County Department of Natural Resources Year 2000 CSO Plan Update Project Sediment Mangement Plan: Preliminary Review of Sediment Alternatives.” Task 1000 Draft Technical Memorandum, January 1999

Keywords:Thin-layer capping

Summary:This document presents a draft compilation on sediment remediation technologies pertaining to the Puget Sound region. Thin-layer capping is specifically addressed in a section of one chapter. The document relates to the Kings County combined sewer overflow (CSO) program. Thin-layer capping by: windrows, clam shell bucket, split hull barge, wash off flat barge, and by hydraulic means are discussed. Also, materials and example sites of thin-layer capping are listed.

What You Will Find Here:Summary p. ii, Sediment Remediation Technology Matrix Table 1 p. ii, Introduction p. 1, Sediment Remediation Technologies Figure 1 p. 5, In Situ Containment Technologies p. 6, Enhanced Natural Recovery/Thin-layer Capping p. 6, Capping Material Sources and Availability p. 9

Palermo, M.R.; Clausner, J.E.; Rollings, M.P.; Williams, G.L.; Myers, T.E.; Fredette, T.J.; Randall, R.E.. (1998). “Guidance for Subaqueous Dredged Material Capping.

Keywords:Guidance, Dredged Material, Capping, Subaqueous

Summary:This document provides guidance for subaqueous dredged material capping. Carefully considered design, construction, and monitoring are needed. There is an interdependence between all components. The basic requirement is that the cap thickness is placed and maintained. Biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of sediment are needed. Site selection is important and should be a low-energy environment. Compatability between equipment and placement technique is required. Many types of equipment are available. Scheduling must consider both exposure of contaminated material to the environment, and other constraints. Evaluation of potential wate column effects due to placement of contaminated material must be performed. Capping is less costly than confined disposal.

What You Will Find Here:Sediment Characterization p. 16, Equipment and Placement Techniques p. 26, Sediment Dispersion and Mound Development and Site Geometry p. 51, Cap Design p. 64, Longterm Cap Stability p. 79, Cap Monitoring p. 98, Chemical Containment p. B1, LTFATE p. F1, Frequency of Erosion p. G1,

Stevenson Environmental Services, Inc.. “Silver Lake Pilot Study Sediment Capping.

Keywords:subaqueous cap, thin-layer lifts, geotextile, pilot study, turbidity curtain, armor stone

Summary:A one acre area was capped in Silver Lake. The pilot area was sectioned into 3 units that each received different capping treatments. Two of the areas had a geotextile placed before sand-soil mixtures. The placement of the mixtures utilized a conveyor system, mix tank, pumps, pipeline, a slurry dissipator barge, and barge structures. Turbidity curtains were installed to keep suspended solids in the remediation area. There were some challenges placing the geotextiles in the wind and waves.

What You Will Find Here:Webpage