Planning Resources

Ferraro, C.. (2014). “Strategies for Implementing Regional Sediment Management: Using a Collaborative Approach to Implementing RSM Principles in Alabama.”CEER, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 28th, 2014

Keywords: Regional Sediment Management, Mobile Bay, Brookley Hole, Thin-Layer Open Placement, Beneficial Use

Summary: These presentation slides cover a range of environmentally acceptable alternatives for disposal of dredged material in Mobile Bay. This includes: disposal at Brookley Hole, thin-layer placement, and marsh creation in the upper bay.

What You Will Find Here: Slides

Wilson, David; Rudolfo, Nicholas’ Noble, Bruce; Lally, John; Hewitt, Ronald; Kim, Kay; Grover, Barry.. (2014). “Implementation of a Thin Layer Cap on Lake Superior in Marathon, Ontario” Presenation RPIC-FCS Workshop April 14-16, 2014 Ottawa

Keywords: Construction, Monitoring

Summary: Principal discharges resulted from untreated pulp mill effluent and treated effluent from a chlor-alkali plant which operated from 1977 to 1984. Marathon Pulp and Paper filed for bankruptcy in 2009 and ceased operation. Investigations dating back to 1980 have measured elevated mercury and PCBs in Cove sediments. Sediments not toxic to benthic organisms, but affect upper trophic community including reproductive success of bottom feeding fish. Options considered included dredging and capping alternatives. Presence of higher levels of contamination at depth and risk of resuspension were concerns with dredge options. Thin layer sand cap provided ability to achieve adequate risk reduction and to provide enhanced natural recovery of the site. Prescribed remedy is placement of 15 – 20 cm layer of clean sand over defined contaminated “hot spots”.

What You Will Find Here: Construction p. 13; Monitoring p. 20

Hartman, E.; Kim, K.; Santiago, R.; Joyner, R.; Grahm, M.. (2014). “The use of a thin-layer cap to manage Hg and PCB Contaminated Sediments in Peninsula Harbor, Ontario, Canada..”Presentation

Keywords: Mercury, PCBs, Pulp Mill, Chlor-Alkali Plant, Capping

Summary: The slide show describes thin-layer capping for in-situ remediation of mercury and PCB contaminated sediments in Peninsula Harbor, Ontario. Engineering design, contracting, environmental mitigation measures, implementation and monitoring are covered. Descriptive photographs are included.

What You Will Find Here: Slides

Algar et al. . (2013). “Processes, Assessment, and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments.” Ed. Reible, D.D. Springer. New York.

Keywords:Sediment Deposition, Enhanced Monitored Natural Recovery, Thin-Layer Placement and Stability

Summary:Engineered thin-layer placement is best for remediating moderately elevated concentrations, under quiescent conditions, and where there is minimal natural background sedimentation. A variety of placement techniques are discussed. Lessons from a few case studies are mentioned. The usefullness of SPI camera survies is highlighted.

What You Will Find Here:Sediment Deposition p. 243, Thin-Layer Placement and Stability p. 248

Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control. (2013). “DNREC’s first beneficial-reuse marsh restoration project succeeds with thin-layer spray application.” Press Release. Vol. 43, No 212, p. 30, 5-21-13

Keywords:thin-layer placement, marsh restoration, Delaware

Summary:Thin-layer placement of dredged materials was to restore marsh in Pepper Creek satisfied multiple objectives and will serve as a model for similar projects in Delaware.

What You Will Find Here:Webpage

St. Clair Region Conservation Authority. (2013). “St. Clair River Contaminated Sediment Management Options.

Keywords:monitored natural recovery, thin-layer capping, activated carbon, capping, dredging

Summary:The contaminated sediment remedy options are defined for the St. Clair River. The options include: monitored natural recovery, thin-layer placement (including possibly activated carbon amendment), isolation capping, and dredging. The risks of dredging are explained.

What You Will Find Here:Webpage

Graham, M.; Hartman, E.; He, C.; Droppo, I.G. . (2013). “Examining thin layer cap behaviour in a freshwater industrial harbor.” J Soils Sediments. 13, 1515-1526

Keywords:Bottom shear stress, Critical shear stress, Dredging, Randle reef, Residuals, Thin layer capping

Summary:A 60 ha remediation area in Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario will involve dredging, capping, and thin-layer capping. The site is contaminated with PAHs and heavy metals. The study focused on predicting bottom shear stress that could compromise the thin-layer cap. Bottom shear stresses exceeded critical shear stresses from both weather conditions in shallow areas and from large cargo vessels. The thin cap may require larger grain sizes in some areas to prevent erosion. The overall effect on the remediation area is expected to be minimal from localized erosion events of up to 8 mm on a 16 cm thin layer cap.

What You Will Find Here:Materials and Methods p. 1517, Results p. 1520, Discussion p. 1522

CarpMan. (2012). “USACE Makes Changes to West Bay Dredging Project.” Texas FlyFishers

Keywords:Galveston Bay, dredged material, seagrass, placement areas

Summary:The online forum from Texas Flyfishers was used to share the news release documenting changes to placement areas 62 and 63 by the USACE following concerns raised by the Galveston Bay Foundation about effects of dredged material on seagrass.

What You Will Find Here:Webpage

Kay Kim, Sue-Jin An, Roger Santiago, Victoria Renner, Rupert Joyner, Anne Borgmann, Matthew Graham, and Erin Hartman. (2012). “The Use of Thin-Layer Cap to Manage Hg and PCB Contaminated Sediments in Jellicoe Cove, Peninsula Harbour, Ontario, Canada.” Environment Canada Sediment Remediation Unit Presentation

Summary:Case study of Thin-Layer Cap in Jellicoe Cove, Peninsula Harbour, Ontario, Canada. Planning, design, construction, and monitoring is discussed.

What You Will Find Here:Remediation (Hg & PCB) p. 6, Planning p. 7, Monitoring p. 13, 56, Construction p. 30,

Gerard Cornelissen, Katja Amstaetter, Audun Hauge, Morten Schaanning, Bjørnar Beylich, Jonas S. Gunnarsson, Gijs D. Breedveld, Amy M.P. Oen, and Espen Eek. (2012). “Large-Scale Field Study on Thin-Layer Capping of Marine PCDD/Fcontaminated Sediments in Grenlandfjords, Norway: Physicochemical Effects.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 46 (21), pp 12030–12037

Keywords:Remediation, Field Demonstration, Thin-Layer Placement, Monitoring

Summary:A large-scale field experiment on in situ thin-layer capping was carried out in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandsfjords, Norway. The main focus of the trial was to test the effectiveness of active caps (targeted thickness of 2.5 cm) consisting of powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed into locally dredged clean clay. Nonactive caps (targed thickness of 5 cm) consisting of clay without AC as well as crushed limestone were also tested. Fields with areas of 10?000 to 40?000 m2 were established at 30 to 100 m water depth. Auxiliary shaken laboratory batch experiments showed that 2% of the applied powdered AC substantially reduced PCDD/F porewater concentrations, by >90% for tetra-, penta- and hexa-clorinated congeners to 60–70% for octachlorinated ones. In-situ AC profiles revealed that the AC was mixed into the sediment to 3 to 5 cm depth in 20 months.

What You Will Find Here:Remediation (PCDD/F p. 12030), Field Demonstration p. 12031, Thin-Layer Placement p.12031, Monitoring p. 12031, p. 12033

Sallesse, C.. (2012). “GIWW Dredging at West Bay Response to Public Concerns.” USACE Galveston District, Slideshow, January 25th, 2012

Keywords:thin-layer placement, sea grass, dredged material, aerial photography, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW)

Summary:The slideshow provides an overview of a thin-layer placement project involving dredged material from shipping canals in Texas. The material was placed in 6-8 inch layers during winter dormancy of the sea grass.

What You Will Find Here:Slides

Gerard Cornelissen, Marie Elmquist Krus, Gijs D. Breedveld, Espen Eek, Amy M.P. Oen, Hans Peter H. Arp, Caroline Raymond, Goran Samuelsson, Jenny E. Hedman, Øystein Stokland, and Jonas S. Gunnarsson. (2011). “Remediation of Contaminated Marine Sediment Using Thin-Layer Capping with Activated Carbon—A Field Experiment in Trondheim Harbor, Norway.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 (14), pp 6110–6116

Keywords:Remediation, Monitoring, Field Demonstration

Summary:In situ amendment of contaminated sediments using activated carbon (AC) is a recent remediation technique, where the strong sorption of contaminants to added AC reduces their release from sediments and uptake into organisms. The current study describes a marine underwater field pilot study in Trondheim harbor, Norway, in which powdered AC alone or in combination with sand or clay was tested as a thin-layer capping material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment. Several novel elements were included, such as measuring PAH fluxes, no active mixing of AC into the sediment, and the testing of new manners of placing a thin AC cap on sediment, such as AC+clay and AC+sand combinations. Innovative chemical and biological monitoring methods were deployed to test capping effectiveness. In situ sediment-to-water PAH fluxes were measured using recently developed benthic flux chambers.

What You Will Find Here:Remediation (PAH p. 6110), Monitoring (PAH flux p. 6113, Benthic Community Analyses p. 6112, Biotic Indices p. 6115 ), Field Demonstration p. 6111,

Winther, Aina. (2011). “Thin layer capping with biochar on marine sediments contaminated with PAHs, and the effect of different caps on marine sediment contaminated with dioxins.” Thesis Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Keywords:Remediation, Thin layer, Design

Summary:Capping contaminated sediment with clean materials is a remediation method that has proved efficient. Passive capping materials physically isolate the contaminated sediment from the receiving environment and active materials sorb the contaminants, thereby making them inaccessible. Activated carbon is one active capping material that is effective in reducing the diffusion of contamination from the sediment. The objective of this thesis was to investigate if biochar could be applied as an active capping material in remediating contaminated sediment. Another part of the thesis was to investigate thin layer capping with three different materials on dioxin contaminated sediment in the Grenland fjords, as a part of the Opticap project. Field work was conducted in the Ormerfjord and the Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjords. The aim was to test the efficiency of the capping materials 1) activated carbon and clay, 2) crushed limestone, and 3) clay in order to reduce dioxin diffusion. According to the results, all caps were efficient in reducing the dioxin flux from the sediment, and the flux was the lowest in the crushed limestone field, though there are variations between the measurements. Dioxins in free aqueous phase were also reduced in the capped fields, but there were no clear trends in which cap was the most efficient, due to currents and exchange of sea water. The dioxin flux from the sediment was measured with semi-permeable membrane device (SPMD) and the dioxins in free aqueous phase were measured with polyoxymethylene (POM). The measurements were done by employing a flux chamber which was put on the sea floor and collected at different time points.

What You Will Find Here:Remediation p. 10, Thin layer capping p. 21, 40, 59 Design p. 15, (Freundlich Isotherms p. 35 )

Merritt, K.A.; Conder, J.; Kirtay, V.; Chadwick, B.; Magar, V.. (2010). “Review of Thin-Layer Placement Applications to Enhance Natural Recovery of Contaminated Sediment.” Integrated Environ. Assessment and Management. 6, 4, 749-760

Keywords:EMNR, Thin-layer placement, Sediment, Monitoring

Summary:Thin-layer placement concept is discussed for sediment remediation. 3 case studies are covered and pilot-studies are highlighted. Surface sediment concentration reductions were documented at all sites. Actual risk reduction following thin-layer placement is less conclusive. Some recontamination of the thin-layer is common.

What You Will Find Here:Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor p. 750, Ketchikan Pulp Company p. 753, Bremerton Naval Complex p. 754, Other sites p. 755, Lessons Learned p. 757.

Bray, R.N. (editor). (2008). “Environmental Aspects of Dredging.” Taylor & Francis Balkema. AK Leden

Keywords:dredged material, beneficial use, aquatic placement, CDFs

Summary:The chapter “Reuse, Recycle, Relocate” defines: benefical use, confined placement, convined disposal facility, and containment measures. Steps in the decision making process for dredged material are provided. Potential uses, aquative placement techniques, and CDFs are covered in detail. The chapter concludes with treatment methods for contaminated dredged material.

What You Will Find Here:Management Alternatives p. 192, Beneficial Use p. 200, Unconfined Aquatic Placement p. 215, Semiconfined Aquatic Placement p. 215, Placement in CDFs p. 228

Joseph Gailani, Douglas Clarke,Timothy Welp. (2006). “Working With Nature Beneficial Use Studies.” Presentation

Keywords:Beneficial Use Case Study, Regulatory, Planning, Cost, Monitoring, Construction

Summary:Overview presentation on beneficial use methods of placement and case study discussion.

What You Will Find Here:Beneficial Use Case Study p. 12, p. 13, p. 16, Long Distance Conveyance p. 6, Regulatory p. 8, Planning p. 9, Cost p. 10, Monitoring p. 17, Thin-Layer Placement p. 23

Onuf, C.P.. (2006). “Laguna Madre: Seagrass Status and Trends in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: 1940-2002.

Keywords:Laguna Madre, redhead duck, shoal grass, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), seagrass

Summary:The history and characteristics of Laguna Madre is provided. The results of dredging the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) to connect the upper and lower Laguna Madre is discussed. This includes the increased turbidity caused by dredging and the resuspension of dredged material. The connection of the upper and lower Laguna Madre has caused a reduction in salinity which has opened a niche for other types of seagrass besides shoal grass, such as manatee grass and turtle grass. Dieback of the seagrass meadow has resulted in nutrient releases and algal blooms (brown tide).

What You Will Find Here:Scope of Area p. 29, Bottom cover Table 1 p. 33, Effects of Dredging p. 36, Brown Tides p. 38, USACE influence p. 39

NYSDEC/EPA. (2005). “Appendix V, Record of Decision, Onondaga Lake Bottom Subsite of the Onondaga Lake Superfund Site, Statement of Findings: Floodplains and Wetlands.

Keywords:Onondaga Lake, Mercury, Methylmercury, Dredging, Hydraulic Control, Capping, Thin-layer Capping, Liner, Leachate Collection, Oxygenation, Monitored Natural Recovery, Remedial Alternatives, Habitat Reestablishment

Summary:The major components of a sediment remedy for Onondaga Lake and the effects on floodplains and wetlands are covered. The remedial alternatives that were considered are listed.

What You Will Find Here:Need to affect floodplains and wetlands p. 1, Components of the selected remedy p. 1, Remedial alternatives p. 3, Effects of proposed action on the natural and beneficial values of floodplains and wetlands p. 4, Compliance with Applicable State or Local Floodplain Protection Standards p. 5, Measures to Mitigate Potential Harm to the Floodplains and Wetlands p. 5

de Leeuw, H.A.; Smits, E.P.T.; Mathijssen, F.A.J.M.; Estourgie, A.L.Ph. . (2002). “Reclamation on Soft Subsoil by Spraying Thin Layers of Sand: The “Ijburg” Project near Amsterdam.” Terra et Aqua. 89. December 2002

Keywords:Sand Excavation, Thin-Layers, Reclaiming Soft Soils, Shear Strength, Pilot Project, Hydraulic Placement

Summary:A stable platform was created on soft subsoil using thin-layer placement of sand. This was accomplished using a custom built spray pontoon. A consolidation period of four weeks was allowed between each layer of sand (50 cm layers). Run off suspended solids were minimized to 400 mg/L using large settlement basins and high flow water pumps. The soft subsoil was a young Halocene clay layer over a Halocene peat and clay-layer (total thickness ranging from 6-12 meters). Vertical drains allowed consolidation periods to be 10 times faster. The geotechnical success of the placement project relied on accurately placing the first thin-layer of sand.

What You Will Find Here:Introduction p. 9, Main Features of the Project and its Design p. 12, Geotechnical Aspects p. 17, Sand Extraction and Overburden Removal by “Clay Relocation” Method p. 26, Spraying Sand p. 28, Reducing Dredging Delays p. 30

USACE/Interagency Coordination Team (ICT). (2002). “Laguna Madre GIWW Dredged Material Management Plan.

Keywords:Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP), Interagency Coordination Team (ICT), Corps of Engineers (USACE), Placement Areas (Pas)

Summary:Each placement area for the Laguna Madre Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is reviewed. Best management practices are used for dispersing dredged material such ase energy dissipating devices for spreading out thin layers and decreasing the chance of burying sea grasses. Dredging windows are set from November through February when seagrass is dormant and less effected by turbidity. Generally elevated turbidity due to dredging activity is limited to an area 3/4 to 1 mile from the discharge point and remains up to 3 months after disposal is complete. It has been determined that if no more than 3 inches of dredged material is placed seagrass can recover in 3-5 years. Typical issues in the placement areas involve: hauling or pumping distances being too long for ocean disposal, recuirements of protecting seagrass, or critical habitat for piping plover or black skimmer. The preservation of cabins are also common issues with dredge material placement. The use of the placement areas for dredged material was surveyed between 1949 and 1995.

What You Will Find Here:General Guidelines p. 2, Reach 1 issues with Ocean Placement p. 3, Pas 213-219 issues p. 17, PA 221 Circulation problems p. 18, Issues with Thin-Layer Placement in Reach 5 p. 19, Erosive Currents PA 233 p. 23

Turner, R.E.. (2002). “Approaches to Coastal Wetland Restoration: Northern Gulf of Mexico.” Kugler Publications.

Keywords:Dredged Material, Thin-Layer Placement

Summary:The history of thin-layer placement is covered. Thin-layer placement thicknesses for revegetation are discussed. A case of a failed thin-layer placement on very soft sediments is disscussed. The ability to convert shallow open water to vegetated marsh is possible. Important planning considerations are listed. Cost comparisons relating high-pressure spray placement to bucket dredging are provided. Monitoring of thin-layer placement may involve different attributes of plant health and several different soil/sediment parameters.

What You Will Find Here:Dredged Material Wetlands p. 77, Thin-Layer Placement p. 115

National Research Council. (2001). “A Risk-Management STRATEGY for PCB-Contaminated Sediment.

Keywords:thin-layer capping , wetland restoration, community involvement

Summary:This book broadly covers risk management for PCB contaminated sediments (and similar contaminants in sediments). The importance of community involvement in any strategy is emphasized. Thin-layer capping is discussed within and in-situ treatment section of a chapter on “Assessing Management Options”.

What You Will Find Here:In Situ Treatment Options p. 209, Fox River p. 205, Hamilton Harbor p. 212, St. Paul Waterway p. 213

Anchor Environmental, Inc.. (1999). “Kings County Department of Natural Resources Year 2000 CSO Plan Update Project Sediment Mangement Plan: Preliminary Review of Sediment Alternatives.” Task 1000 Draft Technical Memorandum, January 1999

Keywords:Thin-layer capping

Summary:This document presents a draft compilation on sediment remediation technologies pertaining to the Puget Sound region. Thin-layer capping is specifically addressed in a section of one chapter. The document relates to the Kings County combined sewer overflow (CSO) program. Thin-layer capping by: windrows, clam shell bucket, split hull barge, wash off flat barge, and by hydraulic means are discussed. Also, materials and example sites of thin-layer capping are listed.

What You Will Find Here:Summary p. ii, Sediment Remediation Technology Matrix Table 1 p. ii, Introduction p. 1, Sediment Remediation Technologies Figure 1 p. 5, In Situ Containment Technologies p. 6, Enhanced Natural Recovery/Thin-layer Capping p. 6, Capping Material Sources and Availability p. 9

Palermo, M.R.; Clausner, J.E.; Rollings, M.P.; Williams, G.L.; Myers, T.E.; Fredette, T.J.; Randall, R.E.. (1998). “Guidance for Subaqueous Dredged Material Capping.

Keywords:Guidance, Dredged Material, Capping, Subaqueous

Summary:This document provides guidance for subaqueous dredged material capping. Carefully considered design, construction, and monitoring are needed. There is an interdependence between all components. The basic requirement is that the cap thickness is placed and maintained. Biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of sediment are needed. Site selection is important and should be a low-energy environment. Compatability between equipment and placement technique is required. Many types of equipment are available. Scheduling must consider both exposure of contaminated material to the environment, and other constraints. Evaluation of potential wate column effects due to placement of contaminated material must be performed. Capping is less costly than confined disposal.

What You Will Find Here:Sediment Characterization p. 16, Equipment and Placement Techniques p. 26, Sediment Dispersion and Mound Development and Site Geometry p. 51, Cap Design p. 64, Longterm Cap Stability p. 79, Cap Monitoring p. 98, Chemical Containment p. B1, LTFATE p. F1, Frequency of Erosion p. G1,

USACE, DoD. (1996). “Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Corpus Christi Bay to Port Isabel, TX.” Federal Register Doc. Number 96-3276, Volume 61. Issue 31. p. 5754-5755, Wednesday, February 14, 1996.

Keywords:Dedging, Dredged Material, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway

Summary:This is a summary of study activities on a long-term plan for placement of dredged material from maintenance dredging of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) from Corpus Christi Bay to Port Isabel, Texas.

What You Will Find Here:Summary, Interagency Coordination Team p. 5754; Goals, Concerns, Approved Studies, Schedule, Public Participation p. 5755

Donald R. Cahoon Jr. & James H. Cowan Jr. . (1988). “Environmental impacts and regulatory policy Implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands.” Coastal Management, 16:4, 341-362, DOI: 10.1080/08920758809362067

Keywords:Wetland Loss, High-Pressure Spray, Low-Pressure, Cost, Field Demonstration, Regulatory, Monitoring

Summary:The high pressure spray nozzle can be aimed in any direction so that the spoil can be deposited discontinuously in order to completely avoid small natural drainage streams or sensitive habitats. In saline marsh, the sprayed spoil has been observed to remain mostly in place during dredging, with little or no run-off into the canal and turbidity levels in the canal were kept low because of the use of hydraulic suction. This new disposal methodology differs importantly from conventional low-pressure hydraulic dredging and the industry standard, bucket dredging, in terms of dimensions of the spoil area, spoil deposition pattern, cost of dredging, and purported environmental impacts.

What You Will Find Here:Wetland Loss p. 342, High-Pressure Spray (Solid deposition pattern p. 345), Low Pressure Spray p. 243, Cost p. 243, p. 347, p. 359, Field Demonstration (Qualitative p. 351), Spray Dredging, Regulatory (Environmental Impacts p. 348, Policy p. 349, p. 359) Monitoring p. 360

Stevenson Environmental Services, Inc.. “Silver Lake Pilot Study Sediment Capping.

Keywords:subaqueous cap, thin-layer lifts, geotextile, pilot study, turbidity curtain, armor stone

Summary:A one acre area was capped in Silver Lake. The pilot area was sectioned into 3 units that each received different capping treatments. Two of the areas had a geotextile placed before sand-soil mixtures. The placement of the mixtures utilized a conveyor system, mix tank, pumps, pipeline, a slurry dissipator barge, and barge structures. Turbidity curtains were installed to keep suspended solids in the remediation area. There were some challenges placing the geotextiles in the wind and waves.

What You Will Find Here:Webpage