Authors: Palermo, M.R.; Maynard, S.; Miller, J.; Reible, D.D.
Reference: Palermo, M.R.; Maynard, S.; Miller, J.; Reible, D.D. 2012. Guidance for In Situ Subaqueous Capping of Contaminated Sediments. USEPA. http://www.epa.gov/greatlakes/sediment/iscmain/four.html. Accessed on 1-15-15
Summary: Placement techniques for in situ sediment caps can be applied to thin layer placement. Each of the following placement techniques is depicted visually on this webpage. Direct mechanical placement involves land based applications of material to a site. Surface discharge of material includes the release of material from barges and hopper dredges. The spreading effects achieved with this technique are described in more detail on the webpage. Spreading by barge movement is used to place material in a sprinkling manner over a large area in a thin layer. Hydraulic washing of coarse sand allows the gradual build-up of cap material. Piping with baffle plate or sand box can be used in conjunction with an hydraulic dredge for the placement of thin layers over large areas. Submerged diffusers provide additional control for submerged pipeline discharge. Spreader barges are for the hydraulic spreading of sand-like material and can cap large areas. Tremies are a gravity-fed pipe for submerged discharge of mechanically or hydraulically handled material. Hopper dredges are material from hoppers, which are discharged like a conventional pipeline dredge in reverse.
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